Slovakia Population, People, Languages and Religions

By | January 21, 2022

Slovakia Country Overview

Where is Slovakia located? The landlocked country of Slovakia is located in Central Europe. Czechoslovakia emerged from this state. The time zone map places Slovakia in the Central European Time Zone, a world time zone that has a +1 hour time offset from Coordinated World Time. In the summer months, this difference is +2 hours, since the clock is then advanced by one hour.

Bordering Countries of Slovakia

According to abbreviationfinder, Slovakia is bordered by five countries: Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to the southwest and Czech Republic to the northwest. With a population of 5.5 million people, Slovakia is a small but beautiful country located in Central Europe. The capital city of Slovakia is Bratislava, located on the banks of the Danube river.

Poland lies north of Slovakia and has an estimated population of 38 million people. The capital city of Poland is Warsaw and it is approximately 560 km away from Bratislava. It is home to a variety of cultural attractions such as museums, galleries and monuments which make it an interesting destination for travelers looking for cultural experiences.

Ukraine lies east of Slovakia and has an estimated population of 44 million people. The capital city of Ukraine is Kyiv which is around 700 km away from Bratislava. Ukraine has some spectacular landscapes such as Carpathian Mountains which are popular with hikers, skiers and snowboarders alike.

Hungary lies south of Slovakia and has an estimated population of 9 million people. The capital city of Hungary is Budapest which is only about 200 km away from Bratislava. Hungary has some beautiful cities like Szeged known for its architecture and culture as well as some stunning natural landscapes such as Lake Balaton with its crystal clear waters perfect for swimming or sailing activities.

Austria lies southwest of Slovakia and has an estimated population 8 million people. The capital city Viennais situated only 90 km away from Bratislava making it a popular day trip destination for locals as well as tourists alike due to its rich cultural heritage and iconic landmarks like Schönbrunn Palace or St Stephen’s Cathedral.

Czech Republic lies northwest of Slovakia and has an estimated population 10 million people. Prague, the capital city of Czech Republic, is situated around 300 km away from Bratislava and it’s one of Europe’s most beautiful cities due its stunning architectural monuments such as Charles Bridge or Prague Castle and vibrant nightlife.

Slovakia National Flag

Population Distribution

As of 2023, the latest population of Slovakia is 5,440,602, based on our calculation of the current data from UN (United Nations).

Total population 5,440,602
Population growth rate -0.05%
Birth rate 9.70 births per 1,000 people
Life expectancy
Overall life expectancy 76.24 years
Men life expectancy 72.36 years
Women life expectancy 80.31 years
Age structure
0-14 years 15.20%
15-64 years 68.84%
65 years and above 15.97%
Median age 39.60 years
Gender ratio (Male to Female) 0.94
Population density 110.95 residents per km²
Urbanization 57.40%
80.7% Slovaks, 8.5% Hungarians, 2.0% Roma, 0.6% Czech, 0.6% Ruthenians; Minorities of Ukrainians, Germans, Poles and others; Proportion of foreigners 2015: 1.1%
Catholics (Roman Catholic) 68.9%, Protestants 10.8%, Catholics (Greek Catholic) 4.1%, other or not precisely specified 3.2% non-denominational 13% [2001 census]
Human Development Index (HDI) 0.857
HDI ranking 36th out of 194

People in Slovakia

About 80 out of 100 residents of Slovakia are Slovaks. 9 percent are Hungarians. They live in the south, on the border with Hungary.

2 percent are Roma. However, their share could be a lot higher due to incorrect information. Roma are groups of people who speak a common language, Romani. The Roma have no land of their own, but are a minority wherever they live.

Minorities are Ruthenians (0.6 percent, in the northeast), Czechs (0.6 percent), Ukrainians (0.1 percent), Germans (0.1 percent) and Moravians (0.1 percent).

Most of the Slovaks live in the valley basins of the mountains. Only 54 percent live in a city. The biggest cities are Bratislava, Košice, Prešov and Žilina. The birth rate (as in Germany) averages 1.4 children per woman.

Languages in Slovakia

Slovak is spoken in Slovakia. This is also the official language of the country.

In all municipalities in which at least 15 percent of the population have another mother tongue, this becomes the second official language in that municipality. In the municipality of Krahule in central Slovakia, German is the second language. The place-name signs in such communities are bilingual. Other languages ​​that are the official languages ​​in individual municipalities are Hungarian, Czech, Bulgarian, Croatian, Polish, Romani, Ruthenian and Ukrainian.


Like Czech or Polish, Slovak belongs to the West Slavic languages. There are many similarities, especially to Czech. Many Czechs and Slovaks can therefore communicate quite well with each other.

Slovak is written with Latin letters (in which we also write German). Some letters can have an extension character: á, é, í, ó, ú, ý, ĺ, and ŕ. They have to be pronounced long. Then there is the soft sign, a tick next to ď, ň, ľ and ť. A j is heard behind them in the pronunciation. Finally, there is the open roof at č, dž, š and ž. These are sibilants and are pronounced ch, dsch, sch and sch (as in Gara g e). In total, the Slovak alphabet has 46 letters.

Religions in Slovakia

62 percent of the population belong to the Roman Catholic Church. 8 percent are Protestants. They live mainly in central Slovakia or on the border with the Czech Republic. 3.8 percent are Greek Catholics. They live in the northeast and are mostly Ruthenians. These figures come from the last survey in 2011.