Kazakhstan Population, People, Languages and Religions

By | January 21, 2022

Kazakhstan Country Overview

Where is Kazakhstan located? Kazakhstan is a country located mostly in Central Asia but also has a portion in Eastern Europe. Kazakhstan is the ninth largest country in the world. On the time zone map of the world, countries are divided into world time zones along the lines of longitude. The allocation to a specific time zone defines the extent of the time shift from the official world time (also called UTC). Two time zones can be found in Kazakhstan because of its geographical spread. In the region where “Western Kazakhstan Standard Time” applies, the regional time is 5 hours ahead of the world clock (UTC +5) and in “Eastern Kazakhstan Standard Time” 6.

Bordering Countries of Kazakhstan

According to abbreviationfinder, Kazakhstan is a Central Asian country located in the Eurasian region of the continent. It is bordered by four countries: Russia, China, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. It has a total land boundary of 13,018 km which includes 6,846 km with Russia, 1,533 km with China, 1,051 km with Kyrgyzstan and 3,588 km with Uzbekistan.

Kazakhstan borders Russia to its north; this border is formed by a line drawn between Kazakhstan’s East Kazakhstan Region and Russia’s Altai Republic. The two countries have had close ties since 1991 when they signed a treaty on friendship and cooperation and have since worked towards strengthening their relationship through joint initiatives such as infrastructure projects within their shared boundaries.

To Kazakhstan’s east lies China; this border is formed by a line drawn between Kazakhstan’s Almaty Region and China’s Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. The two countries have had friendly relations since 1992 when they signed an agreement on trade regulation but have since worked towards improving their ties through joint projects such as water resource management within their shared boundaries.

Kazakhstan also shares land borders with Kyrgyzstan to its south; this border is formed by a line drawn between Kazakhstan’s Zhambyl Region and Kyrgyzstan’s Batken Province. Despite having tense relations at times due to territorial disputes over water rights within their shared boundaries, both countries have been working together for years now on issues such as refugee aid projects within their shared borders.

Finally, Kazakhstan shares land borders with Uzbekistan to its west; this border is formed by a line drawn between Kazakhstan’s Kyzylorda Region and Uzbekistan’s Karakalpakstan Autonomous Republic. Despite having tense relations due to the presence of Islamic State militants within the area during 2014-2017, both countries have been working together for years now on issues such as trade agreements within their shared boundaries.

Kazakhstan National Flag

Population Distribution

As of 2023, the latest population of Kazakhstan is 19,091,949, based on our calculation of the current data from UN (United Nations).

Total population 19,091,949
Population growth rate 0.89%
Birth rate 18.10 births per 1,000 people
Life expectancy
Overall 69.94 years
Men 64.66 years
Women 74.88 years
Age structure
0-14 years 26.09%
15-64 years 66.01%
65 years and above 7.90%
Median age 30.00 years
Gender ratio (Male to Female) 0.92
Population density 7.01 residents per kmĀ²
Urbanization 55.80%
63.1% Kazakhs, 23.7% Russians, 2.8% Uzbeks, 2.1% Ukrainians, 1.4% Uyghurs, 1.3% Tatars, 1.1% Germans; 4.5% Chechens, Azerbaijanis, Armenians, Kyrgyz, Greeks, Koreans, Turks and others
Muslims 47%, Russian Orthodox 44%, Protestants 2%, others 7%
Human Development Index (HDI) 0.817
HDI ranking 50th out of 194

People in Kazakhstan

18.3 million people live in Kazakhstan. 55 out of 100 live in the city. The proportion of city dwellers is increasing. The population consists mainly of Kazakhs (65 out of 100) and Russians (22 out of 100).

Uzbeks (3 out of 100), Ukrainians (2 out of 100), Uyghurs (1.4 percent), Tatars (1.2 percent) and Germans (1.1 percent) are minorities. 50 ethnic groups live in the country. Many did not come to Kazakhstan voluntarily, but were deported to Kazakhstan during the reign of dictator Stalin, often to work in labor camps there.

The Kazakhs themselves are a people of Turkic origin and used to live mostly as nomads. They roamed the country with their herds of cattle and lived on the income that was left over from keeping the animals.

One fifth of the country’s population are Russians. They live mainly in the north and east of the country. Incidentally, “Kazakhs” only refer to those who were not only born in Kazakhstan, but also belong to the Kazakh people. All other citizens are correctly described as “Kazakhstan”. This can also be Russians or Germans who live in Kazakhstan but whose ancestors come from other countries.

Low population growth rate

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Kazakhstan’s population declined. Many people left the country because they did not know what to expect in the future. Especially Russians and Germans turned their backs on Kazakhstan to find a home in the homeland of their ancestors. There are only seven residents per square kilometer in Kazakhstan. The population density is one of the lowest in the world. In the meantime, however, the population is growing again.

What are Russian Germans?

Perhaps you will meet someone in Germany who is from Kazakhstan. It’s not that rare. During the time of the Soviet Union, many Germans, most of whom lived on the Volga, were forcibly resettled from Russia. Namely to Kazakhstan. These so-called “Russian Germans” had only limited rights in the former Soviet Union. They were also not allowed to speak German. At the end of the 1980s, many Kazakh Germans emigrated to Germany. The designation “Russian Germans” can be misunderstood, correctly it concerns people with German ancestors who came back to Germany from Russia (or Kazakhstan). They see themselves less as Russians than as Germans.

Languages in Kazakhstan

National language

The national language is Kazakh and, in addition to Kazakh, Russian is the official language in government organizations and administration. More people in Kazakhstan speak Russian than Kazakh. There are schools that teach in Russian, but also schools that speak Kazakh. In the north, more people speak Russian as this is where most of the Russians live.

The land of the Kazakhs

The name of Kazakhstan means translates to “land of the Kazakhs”. The name Kazakh comes from the Turkic languages. You can translate it as “steppe rider” or “independent”. It refers to the great freedoms that the Kazakhs used to enjoy in their vast steppe country. There they roamed the country with their herds of cattle as independent nomads.

Religions in Kazakhstan

Most of the Kazakhs belong to Sunni Islam, there are also Russian Orthodox, Catholic and Evangelical Christians, the Jewish religion and other religious communities. The predominant religion are Islam and Orthodox Christianity.