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There are many contrasts in the Albanian capital - Tirana. Here you will find magnificent buildings, some from socialist times (compare history and politics ), as well as simple huts. Traditional donkey carriages trot along the streets alongside the latest luxury limousines. Business people sped into high-rise buildings, while poor families drag the market purchases into their mud huts.
In the capital of Albania, one can clearly see that the country is on the one hand on the upswing, on the other hand some are falling behind and parts of the country are sinking into poverty.
Andorra: Andorra la Vella
The capital of Andorra is Andorra la Vella. This translates to "Old Andorra". 22,800 people live in the city, almost a third of all inhabitants of the small country. Andorra la Vella is the highest capital in Europe.
The capital of Belgium is called Brussels. This is also where the European Union is based. Brussels is also the seat of NATO, the Western European Union and EUROCONTROL. Sometimes they say that Brussels is the capital of Europe.
Other large cities in Belgium are Ghent, Ličge and Bruges. Antwerp is located in the north of Belgium, a large port city that is important for the Belgian economy. Here is the center of the global diamond trade. Although Belgium is a small country, it is an important economic center in Europe.
Bosnia and Herzegovina: Sarajevo
The capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina is called Sarajevo. Does the name sound familiar to you? That is quite possible, because the city became world famous through several events. For example, there was the assassination attempt in Sarajevo in 1914, which led to the outbreak of the First World War. The capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina has also hosted the Winter Olympics once before, that was in 1984. Last but not least, the city has also repeatedly been the scene of conflicts and disputes in the Balkans. Sarajevo is located in the east of the country and around half a million people live in the city.
The capital of Bulgaria is Sofia. The name is emphasized on the above. It is named after the church "Holy Sofia" (which means Holy Wisdom).
The city is located on a plateau in the west of Bulgaria. This plateau is also called the Sofia plain and is located between the Balkan Mountains in the north and the adjoining mountains to the south. The Iskar River flows through the city.
1.2 million people live in Sofia. It is also the largest city in the country. Every sixth Bulgarian lives in Sofia! Sofia is also the center of the country politically, culturally and economically.
Copenhagen is the capital of Denmark. It is located on the island of Zealand in the far east. The name means " merchant port ". Copenhagen was already an important trading city in the Middle Ages and also has a port.
The symbol of Copenhagen is the Little Mermaid. This is a small bronze statue that represents the title character of a well-known fairy tale by the Danish poet Hans Christian Andersen. She is sitting on a large stone on the waterfront in the harbor. In 1913 the figure was erected.
Copenhagen has 560,000 inhabitants. If you add the inhabitants of the surrounding area, then there are even 1.2 million people. Copenhagen and the Swedish city of Malmö have been linked by a bridge since 2000Oresund Bridge. Since then you can cross the Oresund (that's the name of the strait between Denmark and Sweden) by car and no longer have to rely on ferries.
The Danish Parliament, which is called Folketing here, is located in Copenhagen. But the Danish king or queen also lives in Copenhagen and has his / her residence here. In the middle of the city is the Tivoli, a large amusement and amusement park. There are good views from the Rundetårn, the "round tower". It dates from the 17th century and is 34 meters high.
The capital of Germany is Berlin. 3.5 million people live here. Berlin is located in eastern Germany and is a city-state. The rivers Spree and Havel flow through the city.
During the division of Germany, the eastern part of the city was the capital of the GDR, while the city of Bonn in North Rhine-Westphalia became the capital of the Federal Republic. Berlin had been divided by a wall since 1961. With the reunification in 1990, Berlin became the capital of united Germany again.
Berlin is considered a cosmopolitan city. It is a cultural, economic and political center. It is considered a city of great importance worldwide.
Many tourists visit Berlin. Twelve million people come to the city every year. You drive to the television tower on Alexanderplatz, visit the zoo, look at the Reichstag and the Brandenburg Gate. Other attractions are Charlottenburg Palace, Museum Island, Berlin Cathedral, the Memorial Church on Ku'damm and Pfaueninsel. Below are photos of some of these attractions. In addition to many museums, Berlin also has numerous theaters.
The capital of Estonia is called Tallinn. It is located on the Baltic Sea, on the Gulf of Finland. This is an elongated bay in the eastern Baltic Sea where Finland, Estonia and Russia are located. About 430,000 people live in Tallinn. Until 1918 the city was officially called Reval.
Helsinki is the capital of Finland. It is located in the very south of the country on the Baltic coast, on the Gulf of Finland. 648,000 people live in Helsinki. It is also the largest city in Finland. It was founded in 1550, but it only became the capital in 1917 with independence.
The landmark of the city is the cathedral, which is located in the center of the city on Senate Square. This is also where the Aleksanderinkatu, one of the major shopping streets, begins. The rock church, the Temppeliaukio church, is also popular with tourists. It was built into the rock and completed in 1969. The Uspensky Cathedral, which was built in the Russian-Byzantine style, looks completely different again. The Suomenlinna Fortress is located on five islands in front of the city. You can go there by ferry.
The largest city in France and also the capital is Paris.
Athens is the capital of Greece. Most of the people live here and it is also the largest city in the country. The city center is not that big, but many other districts belong to the entire city district. Athens is also one of the oldest settlements in all of Europe.
Athens lies in the Attica landscape and is surrounded by foothills. Only the eastern side opens to the sea. The port of Athens is also located here. Due to this location, Athens has an exceptional climate. In summer it gets even hotter in Athens than in the rest of Greece. But in winter it can get cold and a blanket of snow covers the streets of the city.
United Kingdom: London
London is the capital of Great Britain. It is located in the south east of Great Britain. 8.9 million people live in London. London is considered a cosmopolitan city and is visited by many tourists. It is the most visited city in Europe. 14 to 17 million tourists come every year.
The most famous sights are Tower Bridge, the Tower, the London Eye, the Madame Tussauds wax museum, Big Ben, Buckingham Palace and Trafalgar Square. Westminster Abbey, St. Paul's Cathedral and Hyde Park are also popular. The Globe Theater is a replica of the theater that once performed Shalespeare's works - and now again.
The prime meridian (the zero degree of longitude, so to speak) runs through the Greenwich district. In Greenwich you can also visit the sailing ship Cutty Sark and find out more about seafaring and its history in the Maritime Museum.
The Shard skyscraper is a new attraction. Children love the Hamleys toy store. The famous red double-decker buses also operate in London. There are many museums and theaters. The Thames flows through London.
Ireland's capital is Dublin. Dublin is on the east coast. There the River Liffey flows into the Irish Sea. It also divides the city itself into a north and a south side. With a population of 527,000, Dublin is also Ireland's largest city. If you count the residents all around, the so-called metropolitan region, you even come to 1.8 million inhabitants. That's more than a third of Ireland's population!
The most famous district of Dublin is Temple Bar. There are many small alleys, often cobblestone. You can look for relaxation in the public park St. Stephen's Green. Tourists also enjoy checking out Trinity College, the university founded in 1592. However, The Spire was not built until 2003 and became the city's new landmark. It's a 150-foot-tall stainless steel needle that stands on O'Connell Street and is lit at night. At the bottom it has a diameter of 3 meters and at the top 15 centimeters. The Dubliners also like to call it the "largest toothpick in the world".
Old bridges such as the pretty Ha'penny Bridge, but also new bridges such as the Samuel Beckett Bridge, built in 2009, cross the Liffey.
Reykjavik is the capital of Iceland. It is the northernmost capital in the world. The name translates as smoke bay, which the city probably owes to the steam from the hot springs around it. With around 120,000 inhabitants, more than a third of all Icelanders live in Reykjavik. If you take the surrounding places with you, 200,000 people live in this part of Iceland. Reykjavik is located in the southwest of Iceland on Faxaflķi Bay and below Mount Esja.
There is a lake in the middle of Reykjavik. This is Tjörnin. Translated it means pond. Many water birds swim on the Tjörnin and can be easily observed here. Reykjavik City Hall is right on Tjörnin.
One of the city's sights is the Hallgrimmskirka. This is a church and at the same time it is the second tallest building in the country. Construction began in 1945 and was not finished until 1986. Its columns are reminiscent of basalt columns, as they are formed during volcanic eruptions and as they can also be found in Iceland. The church tower is almost 75 meters high. It offers great views of the city!
The harpa (harp) is also popular with tourists. It is a concert hall opened in 2011 and is characterized by its unusual architecture. This is because it is clad with glass, which always glows differently depending on how the light shines. This outer skin was designed by the artist Olafur Eliasson.
The capital of Italy is Rome. Her name in Italian is Roma. Rome is close to the Tyrrhenian Sea in central Italy. The Tiber flows through the city. About 2.9 million people live here. Rome is also the largest city in the country.
There are many old buildings from the time of the Roman Empire in Rome. The Colosseum is particularly well known. The smallest state in the world is located within the city, namely Vatican City with St. Peter's Basilica. Many tourists come to Rome every year. They also enjoy looking at the Roman Forum, the Pantheon, Castel Sant'Angelo or the Circus Maximus. You are sitting on the Spanish Steps, the Piazza Navona or in the pretty Trastevere district.
They throw a coin in the Trevi Fountain, because that means they will come back to Rome. Incidentally, it is the largest fountain in Rome. It is 26 meters high and 50 meters wide! It was built in the 18th century.
The capital of Croatia is called Zagreb. Around 800,000 people live here. With the suburbs there are probably almost over a million. Zagreb is the largest city in Croatia. There are many businesses here and the city is of great importance to Croatia's economy. Only 200,000 people live in the second largest city in Croatia, Split.
The capital of Latvia is Riga. With 700,000 inhabitants, it is not only Latvia's largest city, but also that of the Baltic States. Riga is famous for its beautiful Art Nouveau buildings. Art Nouveau is a style at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries.
Riga lies in the center of the country on the Daugava and with the northernmost districts on the Baltic Sea, on the Riga Bay. The name is derived from the river Riege, which once flowed into the Daugava here and was later filled in.
The capital and seat of the Prince of Liechtenstein is called Vaduz. Vaduz is also an international financial center because many banking transactions are carried out here. Vaduz was founded in the 14th century. By the way, Vaduz means something like "Valley of the Germans". Vaduz is the capital of Liechtenstein, but only a little over 5000 people live there.
It is the capital, but not even the largest city in the country in terms of population. Because that's a place called Schaan. But Vaduz is the seat of the authorities, the seat of parliament and, since 1939, the seat of the Prince of Liechtenstein. This is where the princely castle is located, which dates back to the 12th century and was restored in the 20th century. The royal family lives here. However, you are not allowed to visit the castle, only look at it from the outside. However, if you go up to the castle, you have a wonderful view of the city.
Vilnius is the capital of Lithuania. In German you sometimes read Wilna for her name. Vilnius is located in the southeast of the country on the Neris River. With 526,000 inhabitants, it is also the largest city in Lithuania. The old town has been declared a World Heritage Site.
The capital of Luxembourg is called just like the country: Luxembourg. 115,200 people live here. It is also the largest city in the country. It's in the south. Incidentally, it is called Stad Lëtzebuerg in Luxembourgish and Ville de Luxembourg in French. The Luxembourgers themselves usually only speak of D`Stad.
The city of Luxembourg is (besides Brussels and Strasbourg) also the administrative seat of the European Union. This means that important authorities can be found here, such as the European Court of Justice.
The capital of Malta is Valletta. With a size of only 0.8 square kilometers and 6300 inhabitants, it is the smallest capital in the European Union. Despite its size, the city has a lot to offer and has even been declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Because culturally there is a lot to see in Valletta, such as the fortress walls around the city, the port or many historical places. It is also popular with tourists for its many lovely cafés and the Republic and Merchants Streets. The city is located on a headland on the north coast of the islands.
The capital of Moldova is Chișinău. This is the Romanian name of the city. The Kischinau is pronounced and this is also the German name for the city. It is located on the Bîc river in the middle of Moldova, in a slightly hilly region with very fertile soil. 500,000 people live in Chișinău, and around 730,000 in the region. It is the largest city in the country.
Monaco: Monaco City
We are talking about the state of Monaco, but also about the city of Monaco at the same time. Thus Monaco is a city-state. And what is the name of the capital of Monaco? Nothing, because Monaco has no capital. It's actually quite simple, because hardly any difference is made. The administration and government of the country are located in Monaco-Ville. It is located on a steep rock ledge, one of the foothills of the French Maritime Alps. Here is also the castle of the Prince of Grimald I, the old part of the city and the ocean- themed museum.
The capital of Montenegro is called Podgorica. All important political institutions are housed here. Until the 1990s the city was called Titograd, after the former ruler in Yugoslavia named Tito. The current name means "foot of the hill". 185,000 people live in Podgorica.
The city is also the cultural center of Montenegro. Due to the earlier siege by the Ottomans, the architecture was also influenced by Turkish influence. There are also important sights such as the National Theater and several galleries and museums. The Millennium Bridge, opened in 2005, spans the Morača River and has become the city's landmark.
The capital of the Netherlands is the city of Amsterdam. Amsterdam is located in the Dutch province of North Holland and is connected to the North Sea via the Noordzeekanal. However, the city is not the government headquarters of the Netherlands, this is in The Hague.
On the other hand, Amsterdam is the most populous city in the Netherlands with around 838,000 inhabitants. The city is considered a European metropolis, although it is a relatively small city. The city is known for its numerous cafes, museums and attractions. It is also considered a bicycle city, because almost everyone here seems to be on a two-wheeler.
North Macedonia: Skopje
The capital of North Macedonia is called Skopje and is located in the east of the country. It is also the largest and most populous city in North Macedonia. About 530,000 people live there. The special thing about Skopje is the history of the city, because it is several thousand years old.
Those who used to travel between East and West in Europe usually passed Skopje. This place has seen many disputes and natural disasters. Even if parts of the city were repeatedly destroyed in the course of history, some traces of old cultures and events have remained.
Norway's capital is Oslo. With 670,000 inhabitants, it is also Norway's largest city. For a long time the city was called Christiania or Kristiania. It was so named after a great fire destroyed the city in 1624 and it was moved a kilometer to rebuild. It was then named after the then King Christian IV. In 1924 the original name Oslo was reverted to. Oslo is at the end of the Oslofjord.
Oslo was founded around the year 1000. In Norwegian, by the way, Oslo is pronounced like "Uslu". The name means mouth of the Lo. This is a river that is now called Alna, but was previously called Lo.
Sights in Oslo include the Royal Castle, Akershus Fortress, Oslo Cathedral and the New Opera House. The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded in the town hall every year. The main shopping street is Karl Johans gate. Gate means street and is written in lowercase in Norwegian. Life in Oslo is considered particularly expensive.
Vienna is the capital of Austria. It is in the east of the country. About 1.8 million people live here. If you include the region around Vienna, 2.6 million people live here, around a quarter of the entire population of Austria.
The name Vienna is derived from the river of the same name. In other languages, Vienna is for example Vienna (in English and Italian) or Viena (in Spanish).
Vienna has many sights and is visited by around five million tourists from abroad every year. Take a look at Schönbrunn Palace, the Hofburg, Belvedere Palace, the Hundertwasser House or St. Stephen's Cathedral, for example. You can ride the Ferris wheel in the Prater, marvel at polar bears in the Schönbrunn Zoo and meet sea turtles in the Haus des Meeres. There are also a lot of museums in Vienna, for example the Albertina, an art museum. But maybe you would rather go to the Hotel Sacher and eat a piece of Sachertorte there!
The capital of Poland is Warsaw. In Polish it is called Warszawa. That is what they say: Warsaw. It is not known exactly where the name comes from. Maybe it means "village of Warsz". The place was first mentioned in 1241.
Warsaw is inland on the Vistula. Warsaw is about 350 kilometers away from the Baltic Sea in the north and the Carpathian Mountains in the south. 1.7 million people live in the city.
The old town is part of the world cultural heritage of mankind. After the Second World War there were only ruins here. There were only six houses left! After the Warsaw Uprising was put down in 1944, German troops destroyed a large number of buildings. The old town was then completely rebuilt after the war.
Sights today include the Schlossplatz with the castle and Sigismund's Column, the Old Town Market, the Warsaw Uprising Museum and the monument to the kneeling of Willy Brandt. The Royal Route connects the former residences and is definitely worth a walk!
The capital of Portugal is Lisbon. It's called Lisboa in Portuguese. Lisbon lies at the mouth of the Tagus River in the Atlantic Ocean. With around 560,000 inhabitants, it is the largest city in the country. However, the number of inhabitants has decreased significantly compared to previous years. Many people have moved into the surrounding area. More than three million people live in the entire region.
Lisbon has been devastated by earthquakes and fires several times in its history. The earthquake of 1755 devastated large parts of the city and killed tens of thousands.
The old town was rebuilt after the earthquake. Its architecture bears witness to the 18th century. It's called Baixa in Portuguese. Tiled facades and narrow streets are their trademark. The most famous landmark of the city is the Tower of Belém ( Torre de Belém ). The tower was built in the Manueline style - named after King Manuel I. There is a viewing platform at the top. The Jeronimos Monastery ( Mosteiro dos Jerķnimos ) was built in the same style. If you ever come to Lisbon, you should definitely take the historic tram, Tram 28!
The capital of Romania is Bucharest. In Romanian it is called Bucureşti. According to legend, the shepherd Bucur founded the city. The name Bucureşti means "you are happy".
Bucharest is located in the south of the country in the Wallachia region. 1.9 million people live in Bucharest. The Dâmbovița River flows through the city. Models for many buildings were found in Paris, which is why the city is sometimes called "Little Paris".
The Parliament Palace is particularly impressive. With its 1,100 rooms, it is one of the largest buildings in the world if you look at the area on which it stands. It comes from the time of communism. Today the Romanian Parliament meets in it.
San Marino: San Marino
Like the country, the capital is also called: San Marino. To differentiate one also speaks of the city of San Marino. The inhabitants also simply say la cittā (pronounced: la tschittā), "the city". 4100 people live here. This makes San Marino one of the smallest capitals in the world. It is also not even the largest town in the country, because more people live in Dogana and Borgo Maggiore.
Sweden's capital is Stockholm. The city is located on 14 islands on the Baltic Sea, where the Lake Mälaren flows into the Baltic Sea. Around 900,000 people live in the city, and the region has 2.2 million inhabitants. Stockholm is also the center of the country economically and culturally. The government has its seat here and the Swedish king also lives here - and has been since 1643.
There are countless archipelagos around Stockholm and form the Stockholm archipelago. The old town is called Gamla stan and is visited by many tourists all year round. Here you will find the Nikolaikirche ( Storkyrkan ), the German Church ( Tyska kyrkan ) and the Royal Castle, where the changing of the palace guards is watched by many people every day. The Skansen Open Air Museum and the Vasa Museum are located on the Djurgården peninsula.
When you hear the names of the cities of Bern and Zurich, many people are easily led onto the ice because they consider Zurich the capital of the country. In fact, there is no official capital at all, just one seat of government, and that is Bern.
Bern is very centrally located in the west of the country and, with around 140,000 inhabitants, is one of the largest cities in Switzerland. But Bern is also one of the most expensive cities in the world. The main attractions of the capital include the old town, which is even a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and its many fountains. Everything in Bern is within walking distance, as the old town was built on a peninsula.
Zurich is not the capital of Switzerland, but it is the largest city with around 400,000 inhabitants. If you include the surrounding region, over a million people live here. Zurich lies on Lake Zurich and the Limmat River.
Most of the people in Switzerland live in the flat Swiss Plateau, and not so many people are drawn to the Alps with their high mountains.
The Serbian capital is called Belgrade. One can translate this name as "white city". It is the political and cultural center of the country, because there are important government offices and also many universities and colleges. Belgrade is also the official seat of the Serbian Orthodox Church.
Like many large cities, Belgrade is connected by a river, because here the Sava flows into the Danube. In the past and present, goods could and can be transported across the river. Because of its location, Belgrade is also known as the "Gate of the Balkans". 1.2 million people live in Belgrade.
The capital of Slovakia is Bratislava. In German this is Pressburg. Bratislava is located in the southwest of Slovakia on the border with Austria. The Danube flows through the city. 423,000 people live in Bratislava. This makes it the largest city in the country.
The capital of Slovenia is called Ljubljana. This city is characterized by an interesting architecture from the imperial era and its sights invite you to visit. Translated, the name means "Laibach". It is located on the Ljubljanica river. Many students and artists live here, who shape the cityscape and make the city varied and lively. It connects the culture of the Mediterranean with that of Central Europe.
The symbol of the city is a bridge called the Triple Bridge that crosses the Ljubljanica River. It consists of a main bridge on which cars drive and two footpaths.
Incidentally, the second largest city in Slovenia is called Maribor.
Madrid is the capital of spain. It's pretty much in the middle of the country. 3.2 million people live here. This also includes the Spanish King Felipe. He lives with his family in the Palacio Real, the royal palace. In the Prado Museum you can see paintings by the most famous Spanish painters. A famous square is the Plaza Mayor.
7 million people live in the entire region of Madrid. With its location in the middle of the country, Madrid is the geographic center of the country. But the city has also been the center of attention politically and culturally for centuries. Historically, Madrid is in the area of Castile (see history ). In summer it is quite hot and dry here, in winter it is colder than, for example, in the Mediterranean. And what is the climate like in the rest of Spain?
Czech Republic: Prague
The capital of the Czech Republic is Prague. In Czech it is called Praha. Prague is located in the western part of the country on the Vltava River. With 1.2 million inhabitants, it is the largest city in the Czech Republic. The most famous sights are Prague Castle and Charles Bridge.
Prague is also called the Golden City because its sandstone mountains shine in the sun. Another name is "City of a Hundred Towers" - there are many more towers that shape the cityscape.
Kiev is the capital of Ukraine. It is located on the Dnieper River. 2.8 million people live here. Kiev was the capital of the Kievan Rus in the Middle Ages. It was founded in the 9th century at the latest. Today it is the economic, political and cultural center of Ukraine.
The capital of Hungary is Budapest. 1.7 million people live here. The city is in the north, roughly in the middle of the country. The Danube flows through Budapest. Nine bridges cross the Danube in the city. One of them is Budapest's landmark, the Chain Bridge. Chains carry this type of suspension bridge, hence the name. The name of the city is made up of the two original places Pest and Buda.
Vatican: Vatican City
The Capital of Vatican is Vatican City.
Minsk is the capital of Belarus. It lies in the middle of the country on the Swislatsch River, which later flows into the Berezina. 1.93 million people live in Minsk. It is also the largest city in the country.
Nicosia is the capital of Cyprus and, like the island itself, a divided city. The city is called Lefkosía in Greek and Lefkoşa in Turkish. Incidentally, it is the only still divided capital in the world. The southern part of the city is the capital of the Republic of Cyprus and the northern part of the city is the capital of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, which is not recognized by all countries except Turkey. The city shares a so-called "Green Line". It is monitored by the United Nations peace groups.
The city is characterized by modern shops, stores, restaurants and pubs. There is an old town, which is enclosed by an almost five kilometer long fortress wall. Churches, mosques, and museums also make the city a magnet for tourists visiting the city. There is also a university in Nicosia, as is the largest bank in Cyprus. A large part of the country's inhabitants live in the city or in the surrounding area.
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